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面向资源认知变化的耕地评价研究进展与展望
施釉超1,2,金晓斌1,2,3*,韩博1,梁鑫源1,王世磊1,孙瑞1
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(1.南京大学 地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210023;2.自然资源部海岸带开发与保护重点实验室,南京 210023;3.江苏省国土整治与生态修复工程研究中心,南京 210023)
摘要:
科学的耕地评价是耕地合理开发、利用、保护的前提,耕地资源认知的深化引领耕地评价研究发展。为明晰耕地评价研究的发展历程、热点动态和未来前景,系统梳理1949—2023年引领耕地资源认知变化的理念、事件和政策,探讨耕地资源认知发展的阶段性特征,借助文献调查、文献计量分析、理论分析等方法,对不同阶段耕地评价研究的主要内容、政策支撑、技术方法与代表成果等进行总结,并提出面向新时期社会发展需求的耕地评价研究展望与关键问题。研究表明:1)耕地资源认知按时间顺序可划分为资源本体、资源平衡体和资源综合体3个阶段,认知对象由耕地数量单一维度向耕地数量与质量、数量-质量-生态、实体耕地与虚拟耕地等多维度转变,研究范围也由宜耕地、耕地等实体资源向近远程耦合框架下的全球虚拟耕地拓展;2)各阶段耕地评价的研究重点围绕耕地数量、耕地质量和耕地综合利用展开。在资源本体阶段,侧重土地开发适宜性评价,关注本底要素宜耕性;在资源平衡体阶段,注重耕地质量提升,对耕地资源的可持续利用潜力进行评价。在资源综合体阶段,评价对象向全球粮食贸易中的虚拟耕地拓展,评价内容关注耕地多功能及功能间权衡与协同关系。因此,未来耕地评价的研究内容需适应新时代发展的现实需求,耕地本体评价需兼顾实体和价值量,耕地质量评价需匹配人类福祉需求,耕地综合评价需考虑多元对象和指标。在评价理论与方法层面应加强学科交叉融合,充分利用新调查监测手段,丰富精细化耕地资源数据,为进一步拓展资源认知、丰富评价范式、优化耕地保护制度等提供支撑。
关键词:  耕地资源  耕地评价  粮食安全  阶段划分  展望
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2024.08.20
投稿时间:2023-12-02
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(42271259)
Progress and future directions in cultivated land assessment research: A focus on changes in resource cognition
SHI Youchao1,2, JIN Xiaobin1,2,3*, HAN Bo1, LIANG Xinyuan1, WANG Shilei1, SUN Rui1
(1.School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China;2.Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Exploitation and Protection of Ministry of Natural Resources, Nanjing 210023, China;3.Jiangsu Provincial Land Consolidation and Ecological Restoration Engineering Research Center, Nanjing 210023, China)
Abstract:
The scientific assessment of cultivated land is crucial for sustainable land development, use and preservation. The enhanced understanding of cultivated land resources will propel the progression of research in cultivated land assessment. This study provides a comprehensive elucidation of the assessment, contemporary trends and future trajectories of cultivated land evaluation research. The paradigms, incidents, and policies that have influenced the perception of cultivated land resources from 1949 to 2023 are meticulously investigates, and the temporal characteristics of cultivated land resources are discussed. By employing methodologies such as literature review, bibliometric analysis and theoretical scrutiny, the study encapsulates the principal themes, policy reinforcement, technical methodologies, and notable accomplishments of cultivated land evaluation research across various phases. Furthermore, the future possibilities and key obstacles of cultivated land assessment research are outlined, and the needs of societal progression in today’s era are addressed. The results indicate that:1) The cognitive comprehension of cultivated land resources can be chronologically segmented into three phases: the resource ontology phase, the resource equilibrium phase, and the resource synthesis phase. The cognitive emphasis transitions from a unidimensional contemplation of cultivated land quantity to a multidimensional viewpoint that encompasses cultivated land quantity and quality, interrelationships between quantity-quality-ecology, and the amalgamation of physical and virtual cultivated land. Consequently, the research scope broadens from tangible resources such as suitable cultivated land to the global virtual cultivated land within the framework of near-distance coupling.2) Research on the assessment of cultivated land at each stage concentrates on the quantity, quality, and comprehensive use of cultivated land. The resource ontology phase emphasized the suitability assessment of land development, with a focus on the appropriateness of background elements. The resource equilibrium phase centered on enhancing the quality of intensively cultivated land and assesses the potential for sustainable use of cultivated land resources. The resource synthesis phase broadened the assessment subject to include virtual cultivated land in global food trade. The assessment content in this phase zeroes in on the multifunctionality of cultivated land and the balance and synergy among functions. Future research content in cultivated land assessment needs to align with the practical requirements of the evolving era. The assessment of cultivated land ontology should consider both the entity and its value. The assessment of cultivated land quality should correspond with the necessities of human well-being. The comprehensive assessment of cultivated land should pay more attention to multiple subjects and indicators. Based upon the theoretical and methodological level of assessment, it is necessary to bolster interdisciplinary integration, fully utilize new survey and monitoring methods, enrich the detailed data of cultivated land resources, and provide support for broadening resource cognition, enriching the assessment paradigm, and optimizing the cultivated land protection system further.
Key words:  cultivated land resource  cultivated land assessment  food security  stage breakdown  outlook